It is rare for the laws of a state to allow a birth parent to give a binding consent to an adoption before the birth of the child. In addition, states mandate various minimum waiting periods after the birth before a consent can be signed. Some states require waiting periods that range from 48 hours to 10 days. States also have varying laws governing whether or not birth parents are permitted to change their minds for a period of time after giving consent. Some states make the consents immediately irrevocable upon signing; others allow birth parents to revoke consents for short periods such as 3 to 45 days from the date of signing. In some situations, revocation is permitted all the way up to the time of finalization of the adoption by the court, which could take 6 months or more.

For more information about independent adoptions, click to view one of the following pages: